Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2017 October; 72(10): 600-608.

Copyright © 2017 CLINICS

Identification of the difference in the pathogenesis in heart failure arising from different etiologies using a microarray dataset

Guodong Yang I , Shuping Chen I , Aiqun Ma I II III * , Jun Lu IV , Tingzhong Wang I II III

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, China

Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiology, Shaanxi Province, China

Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases (Xi'an Jiaotong University), Ministry of Education, China

Clinical Research Center, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, China

*Corresponding authors. E-mails: /

received February 17, 2017; revised May 24, 2017; accepted July 19, 2017.



Clinically, patients with chronic heart failure arising from different etiologies receive the same treatment. However, the prognoses of these patients differ. The purpose of this study was to elucidate whether the pathogenesis of heart failure arising from different etiologies differs.


Heart failure-related dataset GSE1145 was obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed genes were identified using R. A protein-protein interaction network of the differentially expressed genes was constructed using Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes. The modules in each network were analyzed by Molecular Complex Detection of Cytoscape. The Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery was used to obtain the functions of the modules.


Samples contained in GSE1145 were myocardial tissues from patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, familial cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, ischemic cardiomyopathy, and post-partum cardiomyopathy. The differentially expressed genes, modules, and functions of the modules associated with different etiologies varied. Abnormal formation of extracellular matrix was overlapping among five etiologies. The change in cytoskeleton organization was specifically detected in dilated cardiomyopathy. The activation of the Wnt receptor signaling pathway was limited to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The change in nucleosome and chromatin assembly was associated with only familial cardiomyopathy. Germ cell migration and disrupted cellular calcium ion homeostasis were solely detected in ischemic cardiomyopathy. The change in the metabolic process of glucose and triglyceride was detected in only post-partum cardiomyopathy.


These results indicate that the pathogenesis of heart failure arising from different etiologies varies, which may provide molecular evidence supporting etiology-based treatment for heart failure patients.

Keywords: Heart Failure, Different Etiologies, Microarray, Expression Profile, Pathogenesis, Data Mining

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