CLINICS

Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2011 May; 66(5): 817-822.
doi:10.1590/S1807-59322011000500018

Copyright © 2011 Hospital das Clínicas da FMUSP

Thoracic Injuries in earthquake-related versus non-earthquake-related trauma patients: differentiation via Multi-detector Computed Tomography

Zhi-hui Dong I , Zhi-gang Yang I II , Tian-wu Chen I III , Zhi-gang Chu I , Wen Deng I , Heng Shao I

Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Sichuan Province Key Laboratory of Medical Imaging and Department of Radiology, Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College, 63# Wen Hua Lu, Nanchong, Sichuan, China.

E-mail: dongzhih@163.com Tel.: 86-28-85423817

received January 19, 2011; revised February 21, 2011; accepted February 21, 2011.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Massive earthquakes are harmful to humankind. This study of a historical cohort aimed to investigate the difference between earthquake-related crush thoracic traumas and thoracic traumas unrelated to earthquakes using a multi-detector Computed Tomography (CT).

METHODS:

We retrospectively compared an earthquake-exposed cohort of 215 thoracic trauma crush victims of the Sichuan earthquake to a cohort of 215 non-earthquake-related thoracic trauma patients, focusing on the lesions and coexisting injuries to the thoracic cage and the pulmonary parenchyma and pleura using a multi-detector CT.

RESULTS:

The incidence of rib fracture was elevated in the earthquake-exposed cohort (143 vs. 66 patients in the non-earthquake-exposed cohort, Risk Ratio (RR) = 2.2; p<0.001). Among these patients, those with more than 3 fractured ribs (106/143 vs. 41/66 patients, RR = 1.2; p<0.05) or flail chest (45/143 vs. 11/66 patients, RR = 1.9; p<0.05) were more frequently seen in the earthquake cohort. Earthquake-related crush injuries more frequently resulted in bilateral rib fractures (66/143 vs. 18/66 patients, RR = 1.7; p<0.01). Additionally, the incidence of non-rib fracture was higher in the earthquake cohort (85 vs. 60 patients, RR = 1.4; p<0.01). Pulmonary parenchymal and pleural injuries were more frequently seen in earthquake-related crush injuries (117 vs. 80 patients, RR = 1.5 for parenchymal and 146 vs. 74 patients, RR = 2.0 for pleural injuries; p<0.001). Non-rib fractures, pulmonary parenchymal and pleural injuries had significant positive correlation with rib fractures in these two cohorts.

CONCLUSIONS:

Thoracic crush traumas resulting from the earthquake were life threatening with a high incidence of bony thoracic fractures. The ribs were frequently involved in bilateral and severe types of fractures, which were accompanied by non-rib fractures, pulmonary parenchymal and pleural injuries.

Keywords: Thorax, Rib, Injury, Earthquake, Tomography, X-ray computed


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